Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
See name spelling and authorship in Eschmeyer (CofF ver. Oct. 2012: Ref. 92135).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal. Tropical
South America: Amazon River basin (Ucayali, Solimões, Amazon, Negro, Branco, Madeira and its affluents in Bolivia, and Tocantins River) and Orinoco basin.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 36687); 78.0 cm WD (female); max. published weight: 14.0 kg (Ref. 27749); max. published weight: 14.0 kg
Common in shallow areas and near banks (Ref. 27749). Reproductive biology in upper Orinoco basin provided by Lasso et al. (1997a), where females appear to bear only two young per gestation. Larger individuals may attain 25 kg in weight. Food includes insects, crustaceans and fishes (Ref. 36687).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
de Carvalho, M.R., N. Lovejoy and R.S. Rosa, 2003. Potamotrygonidae (River stingrays). p. 22-28. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 36687)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm Total Length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.54 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=2).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (68 of 100) .