Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 300 - 1441 m (Ref. 58426). Deep-water; 79°N - 41°N, 67°W - 35°E
Eastern Atlantic: Norwegian Sea from Lofoten Island northward to the western and northern coasts of Spitsbergen; southern part of the Barents Sea rarely to 35°E , on the Iceland-Faroes Ridge, Iceland and Greenland. Western Atlantic: Baffin Bay to Nova Scotia in Canada (Ref. 7251).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 43.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 77.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 106276); max. reported age: 75 years (Ref. 45673)
Inhabit deep waters (Ref. 4570). Epibenthic-pelagic (Ref. 58426). Bear live young. Gregarious throughout life. Feed on euphausiids, hyperiids, cephalopods, chaetognaths and small fishes. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 4570). Longevity was determined from isotope ratios and given as at least 65 years in general and at least 75 years in the waters off Nova Scotia (Ref. 45673).
Hureau, J.-C. and N.I. Litvinenko, 1986. Scorpaenidae. p. 1211-1229. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol 3. (Ref. 4570)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 0.4 - 6.6, mean 3.6 °C (based on 151 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00516 - 0.01470), b=3.04 (2.90 - 3.18), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.66 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 14.1 (10.3 - 18.3) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 12 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (K=0.05-0.10; tm=10-13).
Prior r = 0.18, 95% CL = 0.11 - 0.29, Based on 8 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (58 of 100) .