Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 150 - 780 m (Ref. 58302). Deep-water; 6°C - 13°C; 40°N -
Eastern Atlantic: Morocco, Madeira and Cape Verde to South Africa. Western Atlantic: USA to Brazil. Indo-West Pacific: Tanzania to South Africa, then India and Sri Lanka to the Bay of Bengal, Andaman Sea, north to Japan, Fiji and Hawaii, south to the Philippines, Indonesia and western Australia. Eastern Pacific: Chile (Ref. 9068).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 31.4 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 115012); max. published weight: 670.90 g (Ref. 115012)
(total): 11 - 13;
soft rays: 4 - 6. Lateral line more or less a continuous trough covered by thin membranous scales, usually lost during capture (Ref. 10482). Second preopercular spine well developed, sub equal or longer than first and third (Ref. 11015). Pectoral rays 20-25, with a mode of 21 in Hawaii, 22 in the eastern Atlantic, and 23 in the western Atlantic (Ref. 11015). Interorbital width 7-9 % SL, narrower than in S. longimanus (Ref. 11015).
Found on soft bottom, at a bottom temperature range of about 5.5°-12.5°C and usually at a depth of about 400 m. They live on or near the bottom but feed in the water column (Ref. 47377). Specimens usually brought to the surface with the stomach everted. Stomach contents included parts of bathypelagic crustaceans of family Oplophoridae, Oplophorus sp., and an amphipod (Ref. 11015). Anterolateral glandular grooves with venom gland (Ref. 57406). Sold in small quantities in markets. Minimum depth range taken from Ref. 27000.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eschmeyer, W.N. and L.J. Dempster, 1990. Scorpaenidae. p. 665-679. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4510)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 8.8 - 18.1, mean 12.1 °C (based on 631 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6328 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01072 (0.00427 - 0.02691), b=3.04 (2.82 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.56 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming tmax>10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (23 of 100) .