Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Polynemidae
Etymology: Polydactylus: Greek, poly = a lot of + greek, daktylos = finger (Ref. 45335). More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; depth range 15 - 55 m (Ref. 10799). Tropical; 22°N - 5°S, 26°W - 13°E (Ref. 57343)
Eastern Atlantic: Senegal to Angola (Ref. 57402). Also reported from Mauritania (Ref. 55783).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 200 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 57402); common length : 150 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3659); max. published weight: 75.0 kg (Ref. 7386)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Occurs in shallow coastal waters, over sandy and muddy bottoms, sometimes in brackish habitats (Ref. 57343, 81658). Enters estuaries (Ref. 57402), occasionally caught in fresh water (Ref. 57402, 81658). Very large specimens are only found in marine waters (Ref. 81658). Feeds on crustaceans and fishes (Ref. 10799, 81658). Flesh fairly tasteful (Ref. 57402).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Motomura, H., 2004. Threadfins of the world (Family Polynemidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of polynemid species known to date. FAO Spec. Cat. Fish. Purp. Rome: FAO. 3:117 p. (Ref. 57343)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.3 - 28, mean 26 (based on 48 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00617 (0.00470 - 0.00808), b=3.09 (3.03 - 3.15), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.66 se; Based on food items.
Generation time: 2.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.34-0.41; assuming tm=3-4).
Prior r = 0.57, 95% CL = 0.37 - 0.85, Based on 3 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100) .