Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; catadromous (Ref. 35893). Subtropical
Asia: Japan (Ref. 559), China (Ref. 26561) and Korea (Ref. 58345).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 14.0 cm NG male/unsexed; (Ref. 45563); common length : 11.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 35840)
soft rays: 17 - 18. Head large and without spine; snout with nostril spine; eyes small and nearer to tip of snout; mouth large, upper jaw slightly projected and reaching rear edge of eyes; gill opening large, pseudobranch present and gill rakers small; scales absent but with small knobbles on body.
Adults live at the mouths of rivers that fall into the seas along the coasts of the warmly temperate zone of East Asia. Carnivore. Can grow to 12-14 cm long and becomes sexually mature in one year (Ref. 45563).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00708 (0.00298 - 0.01684), b=3.13 (2.93 - 3.33), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.07 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (tm=1).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (16 of 100) .