Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Cichlidae
(Cichlids) > Geophaginae
Etymology: Gymnogeophagus: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, gea = the earth + Greek, phaegein, to eat (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Reis, Malabarba & Pavanelli.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Tropical
South America: Paraná River basin, in tributaries of the Paraná River between the Monday River and Guaia, Paraguay and Brazil.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 9.8 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 36377)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Can be easily differentiated from most Gymnogeophagus species by the possession of 23 to 25 scales in a longitudinal series (ranging from 26 to 29 in G. gymnogenys,
G. labiatus, G. balzanii, G. australis and G. lacustris. It differs from G. meridionalis by the absence of the small roundish dots on anal, dorsal and caudal fins. It is distinguished from G. rhabdotus by the caudal fin color pattern which lacks the small stripes or elongate dots of G. rhabdotus. It also presents an inconspicuous, darker pigmentation on the longitudinal series of scales between upper and lower lateral lines, especially on smaller specimens; a slightly reticulated aspect on larger specimens; and a conspicuous, narrow dark band on the margin of dorsal-fin membrane of larger specimens, characters not present in G. rhabdatus and G. meridianalis. Bright blue longitudinal stripes laterally on the flanks, commonly present in G. rhabdatus and G. meridianalis, are hardly visible in alcohol preserved specimens of G. setequedas (Ref. 26702).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Both parents take care of the fry.
Kullander, S.O., 2003. Cichlidae (Cichlids). p. 605-654. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 36377)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00306 - 0.02978), b=3.12 (2.87 - 3.37), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100) .