Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 1 - 50 m. Tropical; 30°N - 6°N, 49°E - 80°E
Western Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf and coasts of India.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 58.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 116549); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3507)
Adults occur in shallow coastal waters to moderate depths. Carnivorous. Sold fresh in markets.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
All populations matured as males during the first or second year (Ref. 52206).
Bauchot, M.-L. and M.M. Smith, 1984. Sparidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). volume 4. [var. pag.] FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3507)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.4 - 27.9, mean 26.8 (based on 130 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01445 (0.00924 - 0.02262), b=3.02 (2.89 - 3.15), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.2 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 2.9 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tmax=11; K=0.28-0.38).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .