Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 30 m (Ref. 90102), usually 10 - 20 m (Ref. 27115). Tropical; 22°C - 28°C (Ref. 27115); 21°N - 27°S, 109°E - 168°E
Western Central Pacific: Philippines south to the Solomon Islands. Absent from Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 34.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Inhabits shallow lagoon and coastal reefs (Ref. 9710, 48635). Forms schools that are often found under ledges or around coral heads (Ref. 9710). Swim in tight formation to look like a single large body (Ref. 48635). Juveniles resemble the venomous striped catfish Plotosus lineatus. Adults live secretively in reefs and have a barred or spotted color pattern (Ref. 48635).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Nelson, J.S., 1984. Fishes of the world. 2nd edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York. 523 p. (Ref. 245)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.9 - 29, mean 28 (based on 162 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm Total Length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (18 of 100) .