Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 20 - 140 m (Ref. 75716), usually 40 - ? m (Ref. 2113). Temperate; 39°N - 22°N, 114°E - 136°E
Northwest Pacific: from Hong Kong to north Korea Yellow Sea, then east to Kii Peninsula, Japan.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 14 - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 75716); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2113)
soft rays: 7 - 8;
Vertebrae: 25. Posterior end of pectoral fin reaching or extending past the posterior end of spinous dorsal fin. Tip of lower jaw and inside of lower jaw teeth without or indistinct dark markings. Length of second anal spine almost equal to eye diameter (Ref. 41299).
Inhabit coastal waters in sandy, muddy bottoms (Ref. 75716). Feed on small fishes and invertebrates (Ref. 2113). Marketed fresh and dried.
Trewavas, E., 1977. The sciaenid fishes (croakers or drums) of the Indo-west Pacific. Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. 33:253-541. (Ref. 5369)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 16.7 - 23.4, mean 20.9 (based on 31 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01318 (0.00864 - 0.02012), b=3.00 (2.88 - 3.12), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.7 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.76; tm=1).
Prior r = 0.57, 95% CL = 0.37 - 0.85, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .