Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Tetraodontidae
(Puffers) > Tetraodontinae
Etymology: Lagocephalus: Greek, lagos = hare + Greek, kephale = head (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 10 - 476 m (Ref. 39327), usually 10 - 100 m (Ref. 2700). Subtropical
Circumglobal: tropical to temperate seas.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 61.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850); max. published weight: 3.2 kg (Ref. 40637)
soft rays: 11 - 13. Adults dark green, brownish grey, or blue above, white below; juveniles with about 9 bars on back, from eye to dorsal fin; dark spots on front and middle of belly and on side near pectoral base in specimens less than 33 cm (Ref. 4919).
Primarily an oceanic (Ref. 2850, 2683), pelagic species but may enter estuaries (Ref. 4919). Feeds on crustaceans and squids (Ref. 10001). Suspected responsible for fatal poisoning (Ref. 4919). Should not be eaten (Ref. 36731).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Schneider, W., 1990. FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Field guide to the commercial marine resources of the Gulf of Guinea. Prepared and published with the support of the FAO Regional Office for Africa. Rome: FAO. 268 p. (Ref. 2683)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 14 - 28.9, mean 26.1 °C (based on 5858 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01096 (0.00596 - 0.02017), b=2.91 (2.75 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.40 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 61 [22, 138] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.23 [0.69, 2.19] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.7 [16.3, 20.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.344 [0.153, 0.656] g/100g ; Selenium = 34.3 [16.7, 69.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 20.7 [7.9, 52.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.747 [0.530, 1.096] mg/100g (wet weight);