Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Ovalentaria/misc
(Various families in series Ovalentaria) > Embiotocidae
Etymology: Amphistichus: Greek, amphi = on both sides + Greek, stix, -ichos = row (Ref. 45335). More on author: Agassiz.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 73 m (Ref. 96339). Subtropical; 38°N - 32°N, 123°W - 117°W
Eastern Pacific: Bodega Bay in northern California, USA to northern central Baja California, Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 43.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850); max. published weight: 2.0 kg (Ref. 2850); max. reported age: 9 years (Ref. 56049)
Mostly found in surf of sand beaches, but reported from trawl catches at depths up to 73 m. Also occur near rocks, pilings and other sources of cover and food. Usually form small groups. Also caught from piers and skiffs. Feed preferably on sand crabs but also eats clams and other invertebrates. Viviparous, female carries the developing young (Ref. 205). Minimum depth range based on ecology (Ref. 96339).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Viviparous, female carries the developing young (Ref. 205).
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 9.7 - 15.6, mean 12.9 °C (based on 12 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01349 (0.00559 - 0.03252), b=3.04 (2.83 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 7.5 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.15-0.18; tm=2; tmax=9; Fec=113).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (53 of 100) .