Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Atheriniformes
(Silversides) > Atherinopsidae
(Neotropical silversides) > Menidiinae
Etymology: Menidia: Greek, menoeides, -es, -es = like a half noon shape (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 3 m (Ref. 85409). Temperate; 1°C - 33°C (Ref. 35682); 60°N - 25°N, 82°W - 52°W
Western Atlantic: Gulf of St. Lawrence in Canada to northeastern Florida in USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 11.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. reported age: 2.00 years (Ref. 12193)
Adults feed on copepods, mysids, shrimps, small squids and marine worms (Ref. 7251); also eggs of their own species (Ref. 5951). Preyed upon by striped bass (Ref. 7251) and bluefish (chief predators) (Ref. 5951). Oviparous, eggs are deposited on the substrate during a spawning run along the shore (Ref. 38155). Silversides are sometimes used as live food for trout (Ref. 7251).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 0.7 - 24.5, mean 8.8 °C (based on 225 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00525 (0.00283 - 0.00974), b=3.08 (2.92 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=1.1-1.4; tmax=2).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (13 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 136 [59, 273] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.04 [0.55, 2.44] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.4 [15.8, 21.3] % ; Omega3 = 1.21 [0.40, 3.47] g/100g ; Selenium = 13.3 [4.1, 32.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 17.6 [4.1, 73.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.17 [0.79, 1.78] mg/100g (wet weight);