Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Mugiliformes
(Mullets) > Mugilidae
Etymology: Joturus: Taken from the Greek letter "iota" = the least or in the very small quantity + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335). More on author: Poey.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; catadromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 10 - ? m. Subtropical; 22°C - 25°C (Ref. 36880); 30°N - 7°N, 112°W - 65°W
Central America: Bahamas and Greater Antilles and the Atlantic and Pacific slopes of Central America and Colombia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 61.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9321); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9321); max. published weight: 3.3 kg (Ref. 40637)
Adults inhabit the upper reaches of rivers but enter brackish waters where spawning probably occurs. An important food fish in some areas. Herbivorous and scrapes algae from stones on the bottom with its fleshy lips, although sometimes eats prawns (Ref. 36880). Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205). Migrate from the upper reaches of rivers during months of high rainfall to the sea-river transition zone to spawn (Ref. 13802).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Harrison, I.J., 1995. Mugilidae. Lisas. p. 1293-1298. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9321)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 27.5 - 28.4, mean 28 °C (based on 223 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00543 - 0.02429), b=2.97 (2.80 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm=2).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (55 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 88.5 [38.4, 207.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.14 [1.15, 3.94] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.4 [16.7, 20.1] % ; Omega3 = 1.03 [0.44, 2.40] g/100g ; Selenium = 24.4 [10.1, 54.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 13 [3, 52] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.32 [0.84, 2.23] mg/100g (wet weight);