Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range - 5 m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 43°N - 25°N, 82°W - 68°W
Western Atlantic: Cape Cod, Massachusetts to Florida in USA, straggling south to Miami in cold years.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - 38 cm
Max length : 43.2 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); max. published weight: 2.2 kg (Ref. 40637)
Largely inhabits inshore water on rocky bottoms and reefs, jetties and wrecks. Frequently occurs among litter and tolerates polluted water. Becoming important as an experimental fish because of its size and hardiness. Has been reared in captivity (Ref. 35422).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 10.2 - 26.1, mean 20.7 °C (based on 126 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00468 - 0.02039), b=3.07 (2.88 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 10.4 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.11; tmax=8).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 39.6 [18.2, 83.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.919 [0.523, 1.916] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.5 [17.2, 19.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.49 [0.22, 1.09] g/100g ; Selenium = 16.2 [7.0, 38.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 86.7 [21.1, 341.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.12 [0.66, 1.90] mg/100g (wet weight);