Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Aulopiformes
(Grinners) > Paralepididae
Etymology: Magnisudis: Latin, magnus = large + Latin, sudis = esox, fish of the Rhine, cited by Plinius 9.15; it also means "stake" (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 4750 m (Ref. 58018). Deep-water; 69°N - 61°S, 180°W - 180°E
Circumglobal: From Arctic to Antarctic. Northwest Pacific: Bering Sea, Kamchatka and Kuril Islands (Ref. 41668). Eastern Pacific: southeast Alaska (59°N) to Chile (Ref. 35950). Western Atlantic: 38°N to the Gulf of Mexico, Bermuda, and the Caribbean Sea (Ref. 37039).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 56.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 557); common length : 43.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4473)
Oceanic species of medium depth range. Large adults approach the coasts in temperate and polar zones (Ref. 35950). Meso- and bathypelagic (Ref. 58302). Spawns throughout the year in tropical and subtropical seas (Ref. 35388). Seems to spawn in the Sargasso Sea. Feed on small fishes and shrimps. Preyed upon by sharks, tuna, and whales.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Post, A., 1990. Paralepididae. p. 373-384. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4473)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 2 - 7.2, mean 3.8 °C (based on 2973 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00224 (0.00089 - 0.00562), b=3.14 (2.92 - 3.36), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .