Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Anabantiformes
(Gouramies, snakeheads) > Osphronemidae
(Gouramies) > Macropodusinae
Etymology: Betta: Malay/Javanese origin. Bleeker (1850, 1858) indicates Ikan Wadder Bettah as the local name of Betta trifasciata Bleeker, 1849 (now Betta picta, Valenciennes, 1846) in the Ambarawa Javanese dialect. Ikan Wader is a common Javanese name for smaller freshwater fishes, especially cyprinids (already used in Old Javanese). See Blust, R. & Trussel, S. Austronesian Comparative Dictionary. Web Edition (https://www.trussel2.com/acd/).. More on authors: Ng & Kottelat.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Asia: Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 3.6 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 13213)
Found in a peat swamp forest (Ref. 84801), mostly in well shaded shallow waters (less than a meter deep) or along the vegetated banks of deeper streams. Occurs usually in slow flowing water. Preferred substrate appears to be leaf litter or submerged detritus. Builds a bubble nest, with the male aggressively chasing the female to below the nest (Ref. 13213) .
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Ng, P.K.L. and M. Kottelat, 1992. Betta livida, a new fighting fish (Teleostei: Belontiidae) from blackwater swamps in Peninsular Malaysia. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 3(2):177-182. (Ref. 13213)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .