Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes
(Stingrays) > Urolophidae
Etymology: Urolophus: Greek, oura = tail + Greek, lophos = crest (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 91 m (Ref. 12951), usually 1 - 21 m (Ref. 96339). Subtropical; 43°N - 7°N, 125°W - 79°W (Ref. 55315)
Eastern Pacific: Eureka in northern California, USA to Panama.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 58.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); max. published weight: 1.4 kg (Ref. 4699)
Occurs in sand or mud bottom off beaches and in bays and sloughs (Ref. 2850), sometimes around rocky reefs (Ref. 12951). Feeds on benthic invertebrates and small fishes.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Male grasps disc margin of female, flips under her, and inserts a clasper. Mating lasts about 5 minutes.
McEachran, J.D., 1995. Urolophidae. Rayas redondas. p. 786-792. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9265)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Traumatogenic (Ref. 4690)
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 17.2 - 28.5, mean 23.6 (based on 60 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00265 - 0.02867), b=3.03 (2.77 - 3.29), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.15).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (70 of 100) .