Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Kurtiformes
(Nurseryfishes, cardinalfishes.) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
More on authors: Fraser & Randall.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 15 - 50 m (Ref. 90102), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Indo-West Pacific: Philippines (Ref. 90102), Palau (Ref. 37816), Indonesia (Ref. 47567), Solomon Islands (Ref. 10478) and Papua New Guinea (Ref. 6192).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 4.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 10478)
Occurs in aggregations in caves in vertical walls (Ref. 37816). Also found in steep outer reef slopes in 15-50 m (Ref 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mouthbrooders (Ref. 240). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205).
Fraser, T.H. and J.E. Randall, 1976. Two new Indo-west Pacific cardinalfishes of the genus Apogon. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 88(47):503-508. (Ref. 10478)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 27.7 - 29.1, mean 28.5 °C (based on 44 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00501 (0.00201 - 0.01253), b=3.26 (3.04 - 3.48), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .