Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Characiformes
(Characins) > Distichodontidae
Etymology: Distichodus: Greek, di = two + Greek, stix, stichos = line, row (Ref. 45335). More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal; pH range: 6.5 - 7.5; dH range: ? - 15; potamodromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical; 22°C - 28°C (Ref. 12468)
Africa: present from Senegal to the Chad basin (Ref. 2936, 86396). Absent in coastal basins between southern Gambia and Sassandra (Ref. 2936, 86396). Also found in the Nile (Ref. 2936, 7094, 81638) and in the Cross River system (Ref. 81638, 86396).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 30 - ? cm
Max length : 76.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7094); max. published weight: 6.3 kg (Ref. 7094)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 13 - 17. Diagnosis: mouth subterminal; body depth 2.7-3.6x and head length 3.3-5.5x SL; caudal peduncle 0.7-1.1x longer than wide; 12-15 scales between lateral line and scaly process at bases of pelvic fins; eye diameter 3.3 (juveniles)-7x head length; juveniles with vertical bars on sides (Ref. 2936, 86396). Round humeral spot present (less obvious in larger individuals); body never with small, dark, eye-sized spots (Ref. 81638). 83-94 lateral line scales (Ref. 2936, 81638, 86396). 21-26 (Ref. 86396) or 21-27 (Ref. 81638) total dorsal fin rays. 13-16 (Ref. 86396) or 13-17 (Ref. 81638) total anal fin rays.
Marco-herbivores, feed on submerged plants, Eichornia roots and periphyton (Ref. 28714). Maximum length 62.5 cm SL (Ref. 2936, 81638, 86396).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Vari, R.P., 2007. Distichodontidae. p. 412-465. In M.L.J. Stiassny, G.G. Teugels and C.D. Hopkins (eds.) The fresh and brackish water fishes of Lower Guinea, West-Central Africa. Volume I. Collection Faune et Flore tropicales 42. Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Paris, France, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France, and Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgium. 800 pp. (Ref. 81638)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01202 (0.00866 - 0.01668), b=3.00 (2.91 - 3.09), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.6 ±0.25 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 6.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (52 of 100) .