Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 20 - 269 m (Ref. 27311). Temperate
Northwest Pacific: northern Japan, Peter the Great Bay, and eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56557)
Morphology | Morphometrics
(total): 8 - 10;
soft rays: 8 - 12. Snout pointed, with 10 or more barbels on its ventral surface. No well-developed strong keel on side of the head. Branchial membranes united to isthmus. In addition to these characteristics, it differs from other agonids in having 11 or more dorsal fin rays, and 13 or more anal fin rays.
Common on muddy sand bottoms in 150 m or less. Adults feed on crustaceans and marine worms (Ref. 28197).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mature females are multiple spawners (Ref. 32372).
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 1 - 18.4, mean 13.8 °C (based on 141 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.40 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (56 of 100) .