Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal; potamodromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical
Africa: Nile River, Chad basin, Niger River, Volta River, Bandama River, Comoé River and Ouémé River (Ref. 2835, 81263).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 32.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 65.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 123661); max. published weight: 3.4 kg (Ref. 123661)
Morphology | Morphometrics
(total): 11 - 14;
soft rays: 9 - 18;
Vertebrae: 53 - 57. Diagnosis: lower jaw longer than upper jaw; pectoral fin reaching first dorsal ray (Ref. 2835, 42908, 81263). 11-14 dorsal finlets (Ref. 28714, 122071), the first situated above the pectoral fins; head flat or slightly concave between the eyes but not convex (Ref. 28714). Third dorsal scale row the first to reach ventral midline; predorsal length short, 21.7-27.4 % SL; few (4-5, rarely 6), broad (more than 3 scale rows wide), dark transverse bars extending from dorsum to middle of flank by confluence of dorsal and lateral blotches sometimes including ventrolateral markings (Ref. 122071).
Facultative air-breathing (Ref. 126274); Inhabits swamps and rivers. Essentially piscivorous (Ref. 9695, 28714). Diet includes snails and crustaceans (Ref. 30488).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Gosse, J.P. and J. Daget, 2003. Polypteridae. p. 101-112. In D. Paugy, C. Lévêque and G.G Teugels (eds.) The fresh and brackish water fishes of West Africa Volume 1. Coll. faune et flore tropicales 40. Institut de recherche de développement, Paris, France, Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris, France and Musée royal de l'Afrique Central, Tervuren, Belgium, 457p. (Ref. 81263)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5002 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00437 (0.00274 - 0.00695), b=3.08 (2.94 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.63 se; based on food items.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (52 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 126 [54, 243] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.55 [0.93, 2.46] mg/100g ; Protein = 18 [17, 19] % ; Omega3 = 0.275 [0.116, 0.669] g/100g ; Selenium = 69.6 [31.2, 151.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 33.5 [12.8, 91.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.26 [0.86, 1.81] mg/100g (wet weight);