Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rhinopristiformes
(Shovelnose rays) > Rhinobatidae
Etymology: Rhinobatos: Greek, rhinos = nose + Greek, batis, -idos = a ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Norman.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 40 - 90 m (Ref. 114953). Tropical; 26°N - 5°N, 56°E - 99°E (Ref. 114953)
Indian Ocean: Oman to the Andaman Sea, off Myanmar.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 89.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 121648); 65.0 cm TL (female); max. published weight: 2.4 kg (Ref. 121648); max. published weight: 2.4 kg
Primarily benthic (Ref. 114953). Occurs mainly in the marine environment, but also enters the lower reaches of rivers. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Males mature by 68 cm TL; born at ca. 20 cm TL. Females produces litters up to 6 pups (Ref. 114953). Minimum depth range from Ref. 121775.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
Last, P.R., B. Séret and G.J.P. Naylor, 2019. Description of Rhinobatos ranongensis sp. nov.(Rhinopristiformes: Rhinobatidae) from the Andaman Sea and Bay of Bengal with a review of its northern Indian Ocean congeners. Zootaxa 4576(2):257-287. (Ref. 123963)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00174 (0.00116 - 0.00261), b=3.10 (2.98 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (56 of 100).