Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Scorpaeniformes
(Scorpionfishes and flatheads) > Scorpaenidae
(Scorpionfishes or rockfishes) > Scorpaeninae
Etymology: Scorpaena: Latin, scorpaena = a kind of fish, 1706 (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; non-migratory; depth range ? - 800 m (Ref. 4570). Temperate; 55°N - 25°N, 32°W - 42°E
Eastern Atlantic: British Isles to the Azores, and the Canary Islands, including Morocco, the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 14.4, range 10 - ? cm
Max length : 40.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 33903); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); max. published weight: 870.00 g (Ref. 40637)
Solitary and sedentary. Common among rocks and algae. Feeds on small fishes (gobies, blennies), crustaceans and other invertebrates (Ref. 4570).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Hureau, J.-C. and N.I. Litvinenko, 1986. Scorpaenidae. p. 1211-1229. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol 3. (Ref. 4570)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Traumatogenic (Ref. 4690)
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 11.2 - 15.8, mean 13.9 (based on 232 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01380 (0.01220 - 0.01562), b=3.02 (2.99 - 3.05), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 6.4 (5.5 - 6.8) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 14 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.2-0.5; tmax=8).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100) .