Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Aulopiformes
(Grinners) > Paralepididae
Etymology: Paralepis: Greek, para = the side of + Greek,lepis = scale (Ref. 45335). More on author: Risso.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; oceanodromous; depth range 50 - 1032 m (Ref. 56504), usually 200 - 600 m (Ref. 35388). Deep-water; 65°N - 30°N, 77°W - 21°E
Atlantic Ocean: restricted to the North Atlantic and adjacent seas.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 35388)
Depth range from 50-1000 m (ref. 04473) and up to 1032 m in the eastern Ionian Sea (Ref. 56504). Epipelagic to bathypelagic (Ref. 58426); also mesopelagic (Ref. 5951). Feeds on fishes, crustaceans and occasionally planktonic organisms (Ref. 5759). Spawns from March to September, larvae near the surface (Ref. 35388).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Larvae are found near the surface.
Post, A., 1990. Paralepididae. p. 373-384. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4473)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 2.2 - 14, mean 7.4 °C (based on 462 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00224 (0.00089 - 0.00562), b=3.14 (2.92 - 3.36), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.70 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (47 of 100) .