Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 274 - 550 m (Ref. 58302). Deep-water
Indo-West Pacific: widespread, off South Africa, New Caledonia, Taiwan and Japan, Hawaii.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 9.3 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559)
soft rays: 4;
Vertebrae: 18. Preserved specimens with dusky tan dorsally, pale ventrally. Centers of scales flecked with black around bases of apical spines (Ref. 6612). Tubercles on dorsal surface of disk with simple spines, elsewhere on body with multi-spined tubercles, especially prominent on principal tubercles of tail; fins without tubercles. Rostrum with a large multifold median spine protruding beyond its neighbors, terminating in 5 or more flaring spinelets (Ref. 40826).
Bathymetric range possibly up to 900 m (Ref. 40826). Benthic (Ref. 58302).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Bradbury, M.G., 1986. Ogcocephalidae. p. 370-373. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 6612)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 2 - 13.5, mean 10.2 (based on 169 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.00746 - 0.05337), b=2.96 (2.73 - 3.19), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .