Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Aulopiformes
(Grinners) > Paralepididae
Etymology: Stemonosudis: Greek, stemon, -onos = warp, weft + Latin, sudis = esox, fish of the Rhine, cited by Plinius 9.15; it also means "stake" (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 20 - 500 m (Ref. 4473). Deep-water
Atlantic, Indian, and Western Pacific: in tropical waters.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 9.9 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4473)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Oceanic species (Ref. 26340) occurring from about 20 m (young) to about 500 m depth. Known only from juvenile specimens, probably attains more than 20 cm (Ref. 4056).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Post, A., 1990. Paralepididae. p. 373-384. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4473)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 14.1 - 26.7, mean 20.4 °C (based on 692 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00224 (0.00091 - 0.00552), b=3.14 (2.92 - 3.36), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).