Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Gymnotiformes
(Knifefishes) > Apteronotidae
(Ghost knifefishes) > Apteronotinae
Etymology: Apteronotus: Greek, apteros = without wings / (in this cases, fins) + Greek, noton = back (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Tropical; 24°C - 28°C (Ref. 2059)
South America: the Guianas, Brazil and Peru; rivers of Colombia and Venezuela, including the Catatumbo River.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 13.0, range 13 - ? cm
Max length : 26.9 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 36886)
Dorsal fin reduced to a dorsal filament;
Prefers fast flowing rivers (Ref. 26543). Forms loosely associated groups in rocky habitats or river banks (Ref. 10605). Nocturnal (Ref. 26543). Each individual fish possesses a unique spatiotemporal pattern of electric organ discharge (EOD) potentials distributed over the body surface (Ref. 10595). Chirps and EOD frequency modulations are important elements of courtship behavior and are sensitive to testosterone levels (Ref. 10011, 10883). Seems to reach sexual maturity at 1 year of age, based on breeding experiments (Ref. 10011). Tuberous electro receptors are differentiated and functional in larvae at day 9; electric organ and electro receptors both present in the larvae at the time of first exogenous feeding (Ref. 10605).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eggs of about 3 mm diameter are deposited in crevices. Several days up to 2-3 weeks between batch spawnings. Larvae hatch after 4 days and start feeding on day 11.
Ortega, H. and R.P. Vari, 1986. Annotated checklist of the freshwater fishes of Peru. Smithson. Contrib. Zool. (437):1-25. (Ref. 6329)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00347 (0.00137 - 0.00879), b=3.09 (2.87 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (tm=1).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (20 of 100) .