Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 60 - 185 m (Ref. 11228), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 27°S - 33°S, 17°E - 34°E (Ref. 114953)
South-West Indian Ocean: Mozambique to the western Cape, South Africa.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 81.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3919)
Morphology | Morphometrics
A guitarfish with a narrow, wedge-shaped snout and pectoral disc (Ref. 5578). Dorsal surface brown, with numerous blue-grey ocelli ringed with dark brown on the disc, head, fins, and tail (Ref. 3919).
Rare species found offshore (Ref. 5578). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Probably caught by trawlers (Ref. 5578).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1986. Rhinobatidae. p. 128-131. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 3919)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 12.3 - 24.2, mean 15.9 °C (based on 26 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00302 (0.00152 - 0.00600), b=3.13 (2.95 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100) .