Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 100 - m (Ref. 114953), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 37°N - 20°N, 114°E - 139°E (Ref. 114953)
Northwest Pacific: southern Japan to the South China Sea near Hong Kong, including Taiwan.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 35 - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12951)
Occurs inshore and offshore (Ref. 9913, 11230). Found on sand, often near rocky reefs (Ref. 12951). Biology little known (Ref. 9913), but locally common in Taiwan and Japan (Ref. 114953). Produces 4-6 pups per litter. Maturity size of males known at 25 cm TL. Not utilized for food. Capable of producing a moderate shock to humans (Ref. 114953). Does not do well in aquariums (Ref. 12951).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Ovoviviparous. Up to 5 in a litter (Ref. 12951).
Compagno, L.J.V. and P.R. Last, 1999. Narkidae. Sleeper rays. p. 1443-1446. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9913)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 18.5 - 28.9, mean 26.8 °C (based on 559 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6252 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (21 of 100) .