Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Syngnathiformes
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Solenostomidae
Etymology: Solenostomus: Greek, solen = tube + Greek, stoma = mouth (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 0 - 95 m (Ref. 9829). Tropical
Western Pacific: Southeast of Kyushu Islands, Japan to Arafura Sea, Indonesia and Australia; east tio Fiji. Also known from China.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 5.7 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9829)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 20 - 22;
Vertebrae: 32 - 33. Total number of body plates is 33-35. Color and color patterns highly variable: most specimens in dark-color phase with dark red background overlaid with reticulated yellow to orange blotches; some in light-color phase of yellow to beige with few spots of darker pigment on body. Two large black spots present between first and third dorsal-fin spines (Ref. 9829). Long caudal peduncle and elongated caudal fin (Ref. 48635).
Adults occur over muddy bottom. Females carry the eggs in their pelvic fins that are modified to form a brood pouch (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Pelvic fins of females are modified as brood pouch for the reception of the eggs (Ref. 205).
Orr, J.W. and R.A. Fritzsche, 1993. Revision of the ghost pipefishes, family Solenostomidae (Teleostei: Syngnathoidei). Copeia 1993(1):168-182. (Ref. 9829)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.5 - 28.8, mean 27.6 (based on 414 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm Total Length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months ().
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .