Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Polynemidae
Etymology: Eleutheronema: Greek, eleutheros = free + Greek, nema = filament (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic. Tropical; 14°N - 8°S, 97°E - 130°E (Ref. 57343)
Western Pacific: known only from Thailand, Malaysia, and western Indonesia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 57343)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 14 - 15. Pectoral filaments 3; fin membranes uniformly brown like all other fins. Vomer lacks deciduous tooth plates on both sides throughout its life history. Posterior part of maxilla shallow, 2-3% of SL. Long tooth plate extension onto lateral surface of lower jaw, 9-10% SL (Ref. 41639).
Too small to be of major commercial importance (Ref. 57343).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Motomura, H., Y. Iwatsuki, S. Kimura and T. Yoshino, 2002. Revision of the Indo-West Pacific polynemid fish genus Eleutheronema (Teleostei: Perciformes). Ichthyol. Res. 49(1):47-61. (Ref. 41639)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 28.7 - 29.4, mean 29 (based on 381 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00692 (0.00314 - 0.01524), b=3.09 (2.90 - 3.28), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (20 of 100) .