Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Paralichthyidae
Etymology: Citharichthys: Latin, cithara = lire like instrument + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Jenkins & Evermann.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; depth range ? - 36 m (Ref. 9330). Tropical; 32°N - 18°S, 115°W - 71°W
Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to Peru.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 27.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9330); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9330)
Found on soft bottoms of trawling grounds and bays (Ref. 11482); commonly found in estuaries; sometimes enters freshwater. Feeds on big benthic invertebrates and small fishes. Utilized fresh and frozen.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
Hensley, D.A., 1995. Paralichthyidae. Lenguados. p. 1349-1380. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9330)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 20.4 - 29, mean 25.9 (based on 263 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00724 (0.00314 - 0.01670), b=3.14 (2.97 - 3.31), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.63 se; Based on food items.
Generation time: 0.9 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100) .