Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Anguilliformes
(Eels and morays) > Muraenidae
(Moray eels) > Muraeninae
Etymology: Gymnothorax: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, thorax, -akos = breast (Ref. 45335). More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 36 m (Ref. 5227), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 10°N - 2°S
Eastern Pacific: Costa Rica to Colombia, including the Galapagos Islands. Also in the Gulf of California (Ref. 35581).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 170 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5227)
Benthic between rocks and on sand and mud substrates. Lurks in holes, crevices and dark recesses. Constantly opens and closes its mouth--an action required for respiration, not a threat (Ref. 5227).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
McCosker, J.E. and R.H. Rosenblatt, 1995. Muraenidae. Morenas. p. 1303-1315. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9324)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.6 - 28.6, mean 27.4 °C (based on 16 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00048 (0.00026 - 0.00087), b=3.28 (3.13 - 3.43), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (82 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 21.9 [11.9, 38.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.321 [0.175, 0.563] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.8 [17.6, 22.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.112 [0.050, 0.299] g/100g ; Selenium = 55.5 [30.1, 110.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 55.3 [14.7, 187.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.79 [0.53, 1.12] mg/100g (wet weight);