Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Scombriformes
(Mackerels) > Scombridae
(Mackerels, tunas, bonitos) > Scombrinae
Etymology: Scomberomorus: Latin, scomber = mackerel + Greek, moros = silly, stupid (Ref. 45335).
More on authors: Jordan & Starks.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 10 - 60 m (Ref. 91172). Tropical; 33°N - 27°S, 121°W - 70°W (Ref. 168)
Eastern Central Pacific: La Jolla in southern California, USA to the Galapagos Islands and Paita, Peru. Recently reported from Antofagasta, Chile. Many authors have erroneously considered this species to be a synonym of Scomberomorus maculatus, or a subspecies of it.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 29.0, range 26 - 32 cm
Max length : 99.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 60.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 168); max. published weight: 8.2 kg (Ref. 4699)
(total): 15 - 18;
soft rays: 16 - 21;
Vertebrae: 46 - 49. Interpelvic process small and bifid. Body covered with small scales. Lateral line gradually curving down toward caudal peduncle. Intestine with 2 folds and 3 limbs. Swim bladder absent. Pelvic fins relatively long. Sides silvery with numerous round brownish (orange in life) spots, three rows above lateral line, one above. The first dorsal fin is black distally and white at the base. The second dorsal fin is tinged with yellowish and with black margin. The anal fin is white.
A schooling species believed to spawn close to the coast over most of its range. Adults occur near the surface of coastal waters to over bottom of the continental shelf (Ref. 11035). Adults feed on small fishes, particularly anchovies (Anchoa and Cetengraulis) and clupeids (Odontognathus and Opisthonema). The most abundant game fish along the Pacific coasts of Mexico and Central America. An excellent food fish enough to support a commercial fishery. Marketed fresh and frozen; also used for ceviche (Ref. 9987).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen, 1983. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2):137 p. (Ref. 168)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 19.4 - 28.9, mean 25.8 °C (based on 80 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00631 (0.00414 - 0.00961), b=2.93 (2.81 - 3.05), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.8 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm=2-4).
Prior r = 0.57, 95% CL = 0.37 - 0.85, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): High vulnerability (64 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 45.1 [17.1, 158.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.768 [0.381, 1.870] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.8 [19.6, 21.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.334 [0.206, 0.543] g/100g ; Selenium = 77.6 [23.0, 221.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 27.2 [5.6, 124.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.709 [0.440, 1.225] mg/100g (wet weight);