Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Batrachoidiformes
(Toadfishes) > Batrachoididae
(Toadfishes) > Batrachoidinae
Etymology: Batrachoides: Greek, batrachos = frog + Greek, oides = similar (Ref. 45335). More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal. Tropical; 9°N - 5°S
Eastern Pacific: Panama canal to northern Peru.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 43.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763)
Body depressed and moderately elongated; head wide and depressed; mouth large; eyes dorsal; gill openings located at back of the head; dorsal with 3 spines; pelvic fins sub-jugular; dorsal and anal fins free from caudal fin; anal fin with 21 to 25 rays; lateral lines two, fewer than 52 pores in the upper line and fewer than 48 in the lower; photophores lacking around the anus; body reddish brown, with some darker dorsal-lateral spots along the second dorsal fin and numerous blotches, some brown and some white, especially on the head (Ref. 55763).
Sometimes enters fresh water (Ref. 9277).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Collette, B.B., 1995. Batrachoididae. Peje-sapos, sapos. p. 910-918. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9277)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm Total Length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100) .