Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 36 m (Ref. 5227). Tropical; 28°N - 5°S, 120°W - 70°W
Eastern Pacific: Cedros Island, Baja California, Mexico to Salinas, Ecuador, including the Galapagos Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9276); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9276)
Common around rocky reefs and along continental coasts (Ref. 9276). Feeds on sea urchins, small crustaceans and mollusks, often blowing into sand to uncover prey or turn over urchins (Ref. 5227).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Females are territorial, solely tending and guarding the eggs (Ref. 116451). Males exhibit polygyny (Ref. 116451).
Bussing, W.A., 1995. Balistidae. Pejepuercos, calafates, gatillos. p. 905-909. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9276)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 19.2 - 23.1, mean 22.3 °C (based on 8 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02570 (0.01243 - 0.05316), b=2.94 (2.76 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.35 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 47.2 [18.6, 98.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.576 [0.358, 1.135] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.7 [16.6, 20.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.121 [0.062, 0.243] g/100g ; Selenium = 34.7 [18.3, 72.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 46.9 [14.4, 149.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.07 [0.70, 1.63] mg/100g (wet weight);