Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Paralichthyidae
Etymology: Paralichthys: Greek, para = the side of + Greek, ichthys = fish + Greek, suffix, oides = similar to (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; oceanodromous; depth range 10 - 183 m (Ref. 5951), usually ? - 37 m (Ref. 5951). Temperate; 45°N - 25°N, 81°W - 57°W
Northwest Atlantic: Maine (rarely Nova Scotia, Canada) to southern Florida, USA.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 28.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 94.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); max. published weight: 12.0 kg (Ref. 7251); max. reported age: 9 years (Ref. 52684)
Adults usually prefer hard sandy substrate where they can burrow; can exploit a broad range of lower and mid-estuary habitats including salt marsh creeks and seagrass beds, which usually have muddy or silty substrates , as well as sand flats (Ref. 26621). Occur in bays, lagoons and shallow coastal waters. Utilized fresh and frozen; can be steamed, fried, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988). Exported fresh to Japan for sashimi.
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 9.1 - 24.4, mean 19.1 °C (based on 12 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00601 - 0.01665), b=3.17 (3.03 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 5.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.77-0.84(?); assuming tm>=2; tmax=9).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (47 of 100) .