Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes
(Stingrays) > Urotrygonidae
(American round stingrays)
Etymology: Urobatis: Greek,oura = tail + Greek, batis, batidos = a ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Osburn & Nichols.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 109 m (Ref. 96339), usually 1 - 35 m (Ref. 9265). Tropical; 0°C - ; 31°N - 13°N
Eastern Central Pacific: Gulf of California and scattered localities of Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 47.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9265)
Found in bays, lagoons and estuaries; also on sandy bottoms near reefs (Ref. 9265). Feeds on crustaceans and small fishes (Ref. 37955), and worms (Ref. 12951). Venomous spine on tail.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
McEachran, J.D., 1995. Urolophidae. Rayas redondas. p. 786-792. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9265)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 20.6 - 27.7, mean 23.3 °C (based on 42 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01413 (0.00573 - 0.03483), b=3.07 (2.86 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.47 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (66 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 51.9 [6.0, 296.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.573 [0.113, 2.517] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.6 [17.2, 22.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.176 [0.061, 0.494] g/100g ; Selenium = 39.1 [11.2, 147.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 25.4 [5.5, 113.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.935 [0.236, 3.400] mg/100g (wet weight);