Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 10 - 155 m (Ref. 9824). Tropical; 37°N - 32°S, 35°E - 160°E
Indo-West Pacific: definitely recorded from Inhambane, Mozambique; throughout the Indian Ocean to Java, Sumatra, Viet Nam, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, and Lord Howe Island (Ref. 9824).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 27.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9824)
soft rays: 61 - 73. Distinguished by cycloid scales on the ocular side, except for upper and lower margins of body, and a shorter lower jaw (2.3 to 2.9 times in head length). Body almost circular in shape in young, becoming ovate with growth.
Rare species (Ref. 9824). Found in sandy and muddy areas of the continental shelf (Ref. 5213). Feeds on benthic animals (Ref. 9824). Most sexually dimorphic characters develop at about 8 cm SL (Ref. 9824). Marketed fresh or used in making fish meal (Ref. 9824).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Hensley, D.A., 1986. Bothidae. p. 854-863. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4417)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.1 - 28.4, mean 27.1 °C (based on 860 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00396 - 0.02008), b=3.05 (2.86 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .