Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; pelagic; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 60 m (Ref. 34291), usually 0 - 30 m (Ref. 34291). Tropical
Africa: Senegal, Gambia, Casamance, Corubal, Geba, Little Scarcies, Sassandra, Boubo, Bandama, Agnébi, Mé, Comoé, Tano, Pra, Volta basin, Mono, Sio, Ouémé, Ogun, entire Niger and Chad basins, Cross, Wouri and Sanaga; absent between Little Scarcies and Sassandra; further in the entire Congo River basin, Malagarasi, Luiche, Cunene, Okavango, entire Zambezi including the Kafue system, Lake Kariba, Nile, Lake Victoria basin, Webi Shebeli, Wando, Tana, Galana, Athi, Wami, Rufiji-Ruaha, Lake Rukwa, lower Sabi-Lundi, Shire below Murchison Falls, Lake Chilwa, Ruvu, Pungwe, Limpopo, Incomati and Pongola (Ref. 43912).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 10.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 57127)
soft rays: 41 - 66. Diagnosis: 8-13 gill rakers on lower limb of first gill arch; 41-66 branched anal-fin rays; eyes positioned laterally; in West Africa, this species usually lacks an adipose fin, but specimens with a rudimentary adipose fin may be occasionally present (Ref. 57127, 81643).
Reported to be a pelagic species (Ref. 34290). Occur mainly on shallow waters. Migrate to the surface at night (Ref. 34291). Feed on a wide range of invertebrates including terrestrial insects and whole or pieces of fish (Ref. 28714). Primarily piscivorous at 13-34 cm TL (Ref. 34291). Rarely grow to lengths greater than 30 cm SL (Ref. 34290). Spawn throughout the year peaking once (Ref. 34291). Migrate into rivers in fairly compact schools during the rainy season to spawn in floodwater pools (Ref. 34291). Oviparous, eggs are unguarded (Ref. 205). Max. total length 60.5cm (Ref. 52331).
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
De Vos, L., 2003. Schilbeidae. p. 97-116 In C. Lévêque, D. Paugy and G.G. Teugels (eds.) Faune des poissons d'eaux douce et saumâtres de l'Afrique de l'Ouest, Tome 2. Coll. Faune et Flore tropicales 40. Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique, Museum National d'Histoire Naturalle, Paris, France and Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Paris, France. 815 p. (Ref. 57127)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: ; aquaculture: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00692 (0.00421 - 0.01137), b=3.08 (2.94 - 3.22), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.60 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tmax=5, probably greater; K=0.1-0.3; Fec = 18,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .