Acanthurus lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Lined surgeonfish
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Image of Acanthurus lineatus (Lined surgeonfish)
Acanthurus lineatus
Picture by Greenfield, J.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Acanthuridae (Surgeonfishes, tangs, unicornfishes) > Acanthurinae
Etymology: Acanthurus: Greek, akantha = thorn + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 15 m (Ref. 27115), usually 1 - 3 m (Ref. 37792).   Tropical; 24°C - 30°C (Ref. 27115); 36°N - 36°S, 27°E - 137°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: East Africa, including the Mascarene Islands (Ref. 37792) to the Hawaiian, Marquesas and Tuamoto islands, north to southern Japan, south to the Great Barrier Reef and New Caledonia. Replaced by the closely related Acanthurus sohal in the Red Sea.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 18.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 38.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3145); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573); max. reported age: 46 years (Ref. 27143)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 27-30; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 25 - 28. This species is distinguished by having the following characters: body deep and compressed, depth 2.1-3 times in standard length or SL (body of juveniles relatively deeper than that of adults); snout 5.2-5.7 times in SL; mouth small; teeth spatulate, close-set, with denticulate edges; total gill rakers on first gill arch 14-16; continuous unnotched dorsal fin IX,27-30 soft rays; A III,25-28; caudal fin deeply lunate with concavity 3.3-4.5 times in SL; a lancet-like spine on each side of caudal peduncle which folds into a deep horizontal groove, this spine long, 1.9-2.5 times in head length, and venomous; stomach thin-walled. Colour of body with upper 3/4 with alternating black-edged blue and yellow stripes and those on the head mainly diagonal; lower fourth pale lavender to bluish white; dorsal fin finely striped pale blue and yellowish; anal fin grey with a yellow basal band and a light blue margin; caudal fin blackish with a large, grey crescent centroposteriorly, edged at the front in bluish white and at the posterior margin with black; pectoral fins are pale except basally where they are coloured like the body; pelvic fins yellow-orange with a white lateral margin and a blackish submarginal line (Ref. 9808).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

A territorial species (Ref. 167) which is common in surge zones of exposed seaward reefs. The large male controls well-defined feeding territories and harems of females (Ref. 1602, 48637). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Adults usually form schools and commonly found in shallow gutters. Juveniles solitary and secretive on shallow rubble habitats (Ref. 48637). The species is almost continually in motion. Herbivorous but also feeds on crustaceans (Ref. 5503). The venomous caudal spine can cause painful wounds. Forms spawning aggregations (Ref. 27825).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Form spawning aggregations, but spawn in pairs (Ref. 27825).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Randall, John E. | Collaborators

Randall, J.E., 1986. Acanthuridae. p. 811-823. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 3145)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 03 May 2010

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Venomous (Ref. 4821)





Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 24.7 - 29.3, mean 28.4 (based on 2958 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01778 (0.01164 - 0.02717), b=2.97 (2.85 - 3.09), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  2.0   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=4; tmax=42;).
Prior r = 0.39, 95% CL = 0.26 - 0.59, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (23 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.