Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Salmoniformes
(Salmons) > Salmonidae
(Salmonids) > Coregoninae
Etymology: Coregonus: Greek, kore = pupils of the eye + Greek, gonia = angle (Ref. 45335). More on author: Pallas.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; anadromous (Ref. 51243). Polar; 78°N - 63°N, 58°E - 163°E
Arctic Ocean basin, from Kara to Kolyma drainages. Introduced or stocked in many lakes in northern and central Russia (Ref. 59043).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 42 - 50 cm
Max length : 90.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 59043); max. published weight: 13.8 kg (Ref. 593); max. reported age: 23 years (Ref. 593)
Anadromous, semi-anadromous, lacustrine, lacustrine-riverine, and riverine stocks have been reported. Most stocks are migratory, spending most of year at sea, sometimes rather far from coast (Ref. 59043). Stays mainly in the lower reaches of the rivers (Ref. 593) with slow current, large lakes and their tributaries, floodplain lakes, deltas and estuaries, marine waters with salinity up to 6-10%. Enters rivers in July - August and reaches spawning sites by October - November. In larger rivers, moves upriver up tp 2000 km (average speed 20 km/day). Spawns for the first time at 6-14 years, 47-50 cm SL. Spawns in rapids or shallows, at 1-2°C, when rivers start freezing. Adults leave spawning sites in winter (Ref. 59043). Eggs are buried in unguarded nests (Ref. 205). Eggs hatch in 150-180 days; peak hatching usually in April. Juveniles feed on plankton in winter (during which they do not cease active foraging) and benthic invertebrates in summer (Ref. 59043).
Status of threat: Important commercial species but rapidly declining (Ref. 59043).
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
Berg, L.S., 1962. Freshwater fishes of the U.S.S.R. and adjacent countries. volume 1, 4th edition. Israel Program for Scientific Translations Ltd, Jerusalem. (Russian version published 1948). (Ref. 593)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00427 (0.00273 - 0.00667), b=3.23 (3.10 - 3.36), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 10.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tmax=23).
Prior r = 0.25, 95% CL = 0.17 - 0.38, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (63 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 9.11 [4.72, 22.64] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.253 [0.148, 0.422] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.7 [15.4, 17.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.922 [0.351, 2.624] g/100g ; Selenium = 23.5 [9.0, 60.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 13.3 [2.9, 56.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.401 [0.295, 0.556] mg/100g (wet weight);