Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 5 - 185 m. Subtropical; 37°N - 20°N, 98°W - 74°W
Western Atlantic: North Carolina to Georgia in the USA and the Gulf of Mexico (from northern Florida to Yucatan).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 9 - 12.5 cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3815)
Found mainly on mud bottoms.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 20.4 - 26.8, mean 23.8 °C (based on 120 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01202 (0.00651 - 0.02221), b=3.03 (2.88 - 3.18), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tmax probably >3; tm=1).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (21 of 100) .