Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Ovalentaria/misc
(Various families in series Ovalentaria) > Grammatidae
Etymology: Gramma: Greek, gramma, atos = signal, mark (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Böhlke & Randall.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 10 - 180 m (Ref. 85755), usually 20 - 60 m (Ref. 27115). Tropical; 22°C - 27°C (Ref. 27115)
Western Central Atlantic: West Indies including the Bahamas and Central America.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
A solitary species (Ref. 26340) found on nearly vertical cliffs and drop-offs beyond outer reefs. Often upside-down. Retreats into recesses when alarmed (Ref. 9710). Has been reared in captivity (Ref. 35420). Most common in water more than 30 m deep. Gradually replaces G. loreto at depths of 15-30 m (Ref. 26938).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.6 - 27.9, mean 26.7 °C (based on 168 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5313 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 121 [68, 230] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.687 [0.389, 1.145] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [17.5, 19.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.122 [0.073, 0.211] g/100g ; Selenium = 26.5 [13.5, 52.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 174 [61, 469] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.85 [1.22, 2.75] mg/100g (wet weight);