Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Ovalentaria/misc
(Various families in series Ovalentaria) > Grammatidae
Etymology: Gramma: Greek, gramma, atos = signal, mark (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Böhlke & Randall.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 10 - 180 m (Ref. 85755), usually 20 - 60 m (Ref. 27115). Tropical; 22°C - 27°C (Ref. 27115)
Western Central Atlantic: West Indies including the Bahamas and Central America.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
A solitary species (Ref. 26340) found on nearly vertical cliffs and drop-offs beyond outer reefs. Often upside-down. Retreats into recesses when alarmed (Ref. 9710). Has been reared in captivity (Ref. 35420). Most common in water more than 30 m deep. Gradually replaces G. loreto at depths of 15-30 m (Ref. 26938).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.6 - 27.9, mean 26.7 °C (based on 168 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5313 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 121 [68, 230] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.687 [0.389, 1.145] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [17.5, 19.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.122 [0.073, 0.211] g/100g ; Selenium = 26.5 [13.5, 52.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 174 [61, 469] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.85 [1.22, 2.75] mg/100g (wet weight);