Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; demersal; potamodromous (Ref. 5259). Temperate; 10°S - 40°S
Oceania: Endemic to eastern and southern Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 75.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 44894); common length : 40.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5259); max. published weight: 10.0 kg (Ref. 5259)
Occurs in lentic and lotic freshwater (Ref. 7300). Most commonly found in tidal waters, but also occurs in rivers and lakes with salinities less than 1-2 ppt (Ref. 5259). Occurs in estuaries and lower, tidal reaches of rivers. Popular angling species that tends to swim near the bottom in deeper water. Feeds on small fishes, molluscs, worms, shrimps and other crustaceans. During winter (July and August) they move to the mouth of estuaries to breed (Ref. 44894). Oviparous, egg is pelagic (Ref. 5259) and hatches in 2-3 days. Male reaches maturity at a length of about 22 centimeters; female at about 28 centimeters (Ref. 44894).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Adults move downstream prior to spawning (Ref. 5259).
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.85 - 3.23), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.3 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (63 of 100) .