Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; non-migratory; depth range 25 - 900 m (Ref. 4479). Deep-water; 50°N -
Eastern Atlantic: Spain to Mauritania, and also from Namibia to South Africa. Western Atlantic: USA to about 20°N, and from Uruguay to Subtropical Convergence. Indian Ocean: between 20°S and 45°S (Ref. 4775). Also recorded from Papua New Guinea (Ref. 6993).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 3 - ? cm
Max length : 4.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4479)
High-oceanic and mesopelagic (Ref. 4479, 75154), found at 500-900 m by day and at 25-300 m by night (Ref. 4479). There is size stratification with depth both day and night (Ref. 4775).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Hulley, P.A., 1990. Myctophidae. p. 398-467. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI; Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4479)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 7.7 - 20.2, mean 14.1 °C (based on 563 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.1 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (22 of 100) .