Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Stomiiformes
(Lightfishes and dragonfishes) > Stomiidae
(Barbeled dragonfishes) > Astronesthinae
Etymology: Heterophotus: Greek, heteros = other + Greek, photos = light (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Regan & Trewavas.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 790 - 1420 m (Ref. 58302). Deep-water; 55°N - 40°S, 85°W - 125°W
Eastern Atlantic: Western Sahara south to Namibia, not recorded close to the coast. Western Atlantic: Bermuda south to Brazil including Caribbean Sea and the southern Subtropical Convergence. Also, Indian and Pacific Oceans.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.6 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4465)
soft rays: 12 - 17. Teeth on jaws very short, spine-like; photopores of ventral row excluding AC series arranged in discontinuous, close-set groups of 1 to 5 (Ref. 559). Barbel shorter than head, dark stem, flattened and tapering tip (Ref. 37473). Black in color (Ref. 37039).
Meso- and bathypelagic (Ref. 58302).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Gibbs, R.H. Jr., 1990. Astronesthidae. p. 300-307. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4465)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 3.8 - 8.2, mean 5 (based on 525 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00380 (0.00147 - 0.00985), b=3.10 (2.87 - 3.33), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.73 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (45 of 100) .