Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Gadiformes
(Cods) > Macrouridae
(Grenadiers or rattails)
Etymology: Hymenocephalus: Named for its transparent membrane-like head covering (‘‘hymen head’’) and fragile nature of head bones (Ref. 100825).
More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 430 - 920 m (Ref. 57178). Deep-water
Indo-West Pacific: northwestern Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 98298)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Distinguished by the following characters: pelvic fin rays 8; pectoral fin rays 13-17; barely projecting snout; head bones are rather firm; barbel very long, 50-60% HL, reaching vertical through posterior edge of orbit; orbit diameter 30-33% HL; interorbital width 45-48% HW; gill rakers 16-20; ventral striae reaching close to periproct; otholith length to height (OL:OH) is 1.1-1.3; total colliculum length to pseudocolliculum length (TCL:PCL) is 1.8-2.1 (Ref. 98298).
A benthic species found on the continental slope (Ref. 75154).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 2.4 - 9.9, mean 7.7 °C (based on 276 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00209 (0.00104 - 0.00421), b=3.19 (3.02 - 3.36), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (16 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .