Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Bairdiella: From Spencer Fullerton Baird (1823-1887) American naturalist and vertebrate zoologist leading authority in birds and mammals (Ref. 45335). More on author: Lacepède.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 41°N - 21°N
Western Atlantic: New York to southern Florida in USA, and eastern and northern Gulf of Mexico to northern Mexico.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 9.3  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3702)
(total): 10 - 11;
soft rays: 8 - 10. Colour silvery, greenish, or bluish above, bright silvery to yellowish on belly. Lower fins mostly yellowish to dusky. Mouth terminal, moderately large and oblique. Chin without barbel but with 6 mental pores (median pair often set in a pit). Preopercle with few spines at angle. Anal second spine sharp, more than 2/3 length of first soft ray. Gas bladder with 2 chambers. Anterior chamber yoke-shaped without appendages, posterior chamber simple, carrot-shaped. Lapillus enlarged, about 1/2 the size of sagitta (Ref 51721).
Found in coastal waters over sandy and muddy bottoms. Moves to the nursery and feeding areas in estuaries during summer months and sometimes enters freshwaters. Feeds mainly on crustaceans, worms and occasionally fishes. Mostly used as bait.
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.00787 - 0.01753), b=3.07 (2.95 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=3.06(?); tmax=1.1).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (21 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 169 [73, 381] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.67 [1.31, 5.55] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.4 [17.0, 19.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.74 [0.32, 1.69] g/100g ; Selenium = 34.4 [13.1, 81.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 10.5 [2.4, 41.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.12 [0.70, 1.95] mg/100g (wet weight);