Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Haemulidae
(Grunts) > Haemulinae
Etymology: Haemulon: Greek, haimaleos = bloody (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 10 - 100 m (Ref. 5217). Subtropical; 35°N - 33°S, 98°W - 33°W
Western Atlantic: Bermuda, Florida (USA), western Bahamas, and Gulf of Mexico to Brazil. Also Caribbean, including Antilles (Ref. 26938).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 28.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 17.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3798)
soft rays: 8. Scale rows below lateral line oblique; head entirely scaled except for front of snout near upper lip and front of chin; snout very short; the maxilla not reaching a vertical through center of eye; silvery gray with five dusky yellow stripes, the two lowermost the broadest (Ref. 13442).
Occurs along exposed outer or deeper reefs. Found on semi-hard substrates (Ref. 5217). Feeds mainly on plankton (Ref. 5217); small crustaceans (Ref. 26938).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 21.4 - 27.8, mean 25.5 (based on 392 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .